Colonel (Retd) William H. Clements LLB, FRHistS. Chairman Fortress Study Group. Studied Law at the Queen’s University of Belfast and on graduation in 1959 was commissioned into the British regular army as a subaltern in the 1st Battalion The Royal Ulster Rifles. Served for 32 years in the regular army and during his service commanded the 1st Battalion The Royal Irish Rangers in UNFICYP and served in the Ministry of Defence in London and as Defence and Military Attache at the British Embassy in Beijing. He is a member of the British Society for Army Historical Research and the Military History Society of Ireland and author of two books on the British Martello towers, Towers of Strength (1999) and Martello Towers Worldwide (2011). His other books include Defending the North: the Fortifications of Ulster 1796-1956 (2003) and Billy Pitt Had Them Built: Napoleonic Towers in Ireland (2013). He has contributed articles on fortifications to Fort, the journal of the Fortress Study Group; The Irish Sword, the journal of the Military History Society of Ireland; and the journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society in 2011 and his special interests are Martello Towers; the fortifications of the British Empire; and the preservation of post-medieval fortifications in Great Britain and Ireland.